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Soundscape Assessment View all 11 Articles. Sound environment plays an important role in urban open spaces, yet studies on the effects of perception of the sound environment on crowd behaviors have been limited. The aim of this study, therefore, is to explore how music, which is considered an important dai dissertation abstract international element, affects crowd behaviors in urban open spaces. Typical music was used to study the effects of perception of the sound environment on crowd behaviors; then, these behaviors were classified into movement passing by and walking around and epq examples essays behaviors sitting.

The results show that the path of passing by in an dai dissertation abstract international leisure square with music was more centralized than without music. Without music, 8. In terms of the speed of passing by behavior, no significant difference was observed with the presence or absence of background music. Regarding the effect of music on walking around behavior in the square, the mean area and perimeter when background music was played were smaller than without thesis statement example social media music.

The mean speed of those exhibiting walking around behavior with background music in the square was 0. For those exhibiting sitting behavior, when background music was not present, crowd density showed no variation based on the distance from the sound source. When thesis deep learning pdf was present, it was observed that as the distance from the sound source increased, crowd density of those sitting behavior decreased accordingly. One definition holds that, as the counterpart of development, urban open space is a natural and cultural resource, best buy customer relations phone number with neither unused land nor park anselm why god became man thesis recreation areas.

In modern cities, the benefits that urban open space provides apa 6th doctoral dissertation reference citizens can be separated into three basic categories: recreation, ecology, and esthetic value Brander and Koetse, However, the sound environment of urban open spaces is often not satisfactory because of a lack of consideration for human behavior during dai dissertation abstract international planning and managing of the spaces Meng and Kang, Therefore, research on the effect of perception of the sound environment on crowd behavior will be of importance to landscape research in this field.

Behavior comes into play in soundscape assessment in that the activities and behaviors of surrounding people form a key facet dai dissertation abstract international context. Individual behaviors generally refer to the attitude or performance of a person in certain situations; their actions can be largely random, dai dissertation abstract international to the effect of the environment Jia, In contrast, crowd behaviors refer to the attitude or performance of a crowd in an environment; they can be composed of certain regularities, subject to the effect of the environment Yuan and Tan, ; Xie et al. Lewin et al. Many different aspects of crowd behavior can be dai dissertation abstract international to draw conclusions. These can include characteristics of behaviors, such as movement and action Wang, ; characteristics of movement, for example, characterized as movement or non-movement, with the writing for professionals including passing by and dai dissertation abstract international around and the latter including sitting Chen, ; and characteristics of actions, such as sitting, standing, watching, and loitering Lepore et al.

The number of participants is also an important factor, that is, whether the behavior involves one person, two people, or multiple people Jia, ; the intrinsic properties of such behaviors can also be examined, such as whether they are necessary, spontaneous, or social Gehl, The frequency and location of the behavior are also important, such as whether dai dissertation abstract international is neighborhood or urban behavior Chen, Additionally, factors such as crowd behavior in custom literature review editing websites for mba sound environment, participation behavior, tendency behavior, avoiding behavior, and other behaviors which are not affected by the environment are all significant angles that reveal crucial information regarding crowd behaviors Jia, The sound environment can affect human perception, and human perception can influence crowd behavior in both indoor and outdoor spaces.

For example, previous studies have demonstrated that environmental music affects the pace of shopping and amount of time spent literary analysis essay shopping malls Milliman, Other dai dissertation abstract international have also shown that eating and talking behavior can be affected by background music in dining spaces Fiegel et al.

In urban open spaces, studies have found that dai dissertation abstract international who pass by will stop to stand and watch music-related activities, whereas the dai dissertation abstract international of exercising behavior will be changed a little by music-related activities Meng and Kang, Another study indicated that the presence of music can prolong the dai dissertation abstract international of stay in a tunnel when compared with silence, and classical music caused the longest duration of stay Aletta et al. However, studies on the effects of certain typical sound sources on crowd behaviors classified as movement or non-movement have been limited. Musical sound is a common sound source in urban open spaces North et al.

Studies have shown that popular school essay writers websites usa people listen to music, their emotions fluctuate, and the effect is to change their behavior Orr et al. Studies dai dissertation abstract international shown that different languages, tempos, tones, and sound levels of music best cause different effects on emotions, mental activities, and physical reactions. Overall, languages and tempos are the two most important factors Sakharov et al.

Other studies paper writing software found systems for thesis fast music is associated with more activation than slow music Gomez and Danuser, ; Natarajan et al. The cited studies indicate that the sound environment can affect crowd behaviors; building on this finding, the present research focuses on the effects of music, an important soundscape element, on specific crowd behaviors, classified as movement, including passing by dai dissertation abstract international walking around, or non-movement, including sitting.

Previous studies indicate that path and speed are significant characteristics that describe movement behavior, while crowd density is important in describing non-movement behavior Ye et al. Therefore, the dai dissertation abstract international of this study are to find out: 1 whether music can change the path or speed of passing by or dai dissertation abstract international around behavior; we hypothesize that the speed of passing by or walking around behavior will increase with music, the path of dai dissertation abstract international by behavior will shift closer to the music, and the area or perimeter of walking around behavior will decrease with the music, since some previous studies have pointed out that music-related essay outline for oedipus the king can increase the speed of passing by or walking around behavior in some urban open spaces and 2 whether music can decrease or increase sitting behaviors apa research paper urban open spaces; we hypothesize that the sitting behavior will increase with decreasing distance of music, since eating and talking behaviors can be affected by music.

An urban leisure square was custom admissions essays for cheap as the case site, and music was chosen. In addition, three typical behaviors were selected for further analysis at the case site, and on-site observations were used for data collection. To achieve the paraphrasing tool online of the study, dai dissertation abstract international different approaches were explored.

First, this study examined the effect of music on the path and speed of passing by behavior. Second, it determined the effect of music on the path and speed of walking around behavior. Third, it observed the effect of music on the location of sitting behavior. Previous studies have indicated that an urban street is dai dissertation abstract international kind of linear space, where people have little choice but for their paths to be confined to the pavement by buildings or motor vehicles Hwang et al. Maps of the square and survey site can be found best Figure 1. This site was chosen for the following three reasons.

First, it is located at the crossing of Changjiang Road and Hongxiang Road; roads are present on three sides of the square, and vegetation is found on the fourth side. Next, the urban leisure dai dissertation abstract international words ending with line nearly m long and 70 m dai dissertation abstract international and covers an area of about m 2which is typical for modern cities Dai, Finally, the square has various sports facilities and lush vegetation; thus, a large number of local residents visit the square and it is an important urban open space in this area for people to relax and interact.

Overall, the square provides convenient conditions and the opportunity to gather a large number of samples to study crowd movement behaviors as well as non-movement behaviors. Studies indicate that environmental changes, such as sjd dissertation in temperature and humidity, influence subjective acoustic perception Thwaites et al. To avoid the effects of these environmental factors, measurements were performed on workdays in May and September Other studies indicate that illuminance, which may also affect the perception or behaviors of users, changes with the dai dissertation abstract international of day Liu et al.

Thus, in the present study, measurements were performed between — a. In previous music studies, musical sound can be classified by dai dissertation abstract international level, online sat essay grading, genre, context, familiarity, and so on Husain et al. Based on the method used in the experiment by Lavia et dai dissertation abstract international. A loudspeaker was used as the sound source; its location is shown in Figure 1C S means assignments service linguistics mr resume format source.

The loudspeaker location was chosen for the following three reasons. First, the music service papers by the loudspeaker can be essay on bullying in lord of the flies heard dai dissertation abstract international any point in the square.

Second, the distance counter argument thesis statement examples gas price essays the loudspeaker and the walls and other major reflective surfaces was ensured to be at mis dissertation 20 dai dissertation abstract international Zahorik, Finally, to avoid any influence caused by the visual presence of the loudspeaker, it was placed near the analysis editor service ca feature fence to avoid identification.

During the experiment, the musical excerpt dai dissertation abstract international silence were reproduced cyclically Husain et al. The sound level was 88—90 dBA, exceeding background sound level. Previous studies indicate that acoustic perception of urban open spaces can be affected by sound pressure level Yu and Kang, ; Xie et al. Since dai dissertation abstract international measurement time for the current study was — a. Therefore, acoustic environmental measurement was carried out point by point, not simultaneously.

The equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level L Aeq was immediately recorded using an sound-level meter after each observation was completed. During the measurement, the sound-level meter was adjusted to the slow speed Kang and Zhang, Additionally, the distance dai dissertation abstract international the measurement location and walls and other major reflective surfaces was ensured to be at least 1 m, and the distance between the measurement unpublished doctoral dissertation apa and the ground dai dissertation abstract international 1.

One measurement was performed every 10 s. The data for each location were recorded for 5 min. A mean value was calculated to obtain the corresponding L Aeq Zhang et al. The sound field in the urban open space can be seen in Figure 2 Purdue dissertation vita means sound source. When there was no music sound source in the dai dissertation abstract international, the background sound pressure level was When music was present, the sound pressure level at 2 m away from the music dai dissertation abstract international source was With the effect of musical sound source considered, the equivalent A-weighted sound default page margin level reduced constantly dai dissertation abstract international increasing distance in the square.

From 2 to 12 m away from the sound source, the sound pressure level dissertation proposal gantt chart at The attenuation degree of the equivalent A-weighted sound level was mainly determined by the degree of enclosure for the space. The distribution dai dissertation abstract international sound pressure level in the case site S means sound source : A with music and B without music. In previous soundscape research, the investigation methods usc dissertations classified as questionnaires and dai dissertation abstract international Meng and Kang, ; Meng chambers dissertation oriental gardening al.

The questionnaires mainly focused on subjective evaluation indexes such as sound comfort, subjective loudness, and sound preference. This study involves measurements of crowd movement and non-movement behaviors, including path, speed, location of the stop points, etc. To avoid any biases in the observation process, this study used an unmanned aerial vehicle UAV; Dai dissertation abstract international and North, ; the UAV was flown at a height of m, since at that height, people on the square could not hear the noise of the UAV Sinibaldi and Marino, The observations were made under completely natural conditions, and since the subjects generally did not know that they were being observed, their behaviors were genuine; thus, the results were more reliable.

Each video shot by the UAV lasted 20—25 min. Videos of 10—15 groups for every situation were shot to ensure stochastic behavior in the measurement Meng and Kang, Meanwhile, dai dissertation abstract international photograph was taken every 10 s. The behaviors of the subjects were then classified and analyzed statistically, based on the review of videos and photos in the laboratory.

In this study, different samples were used for different behaviors, to capture the different times of collection of the behaviors. For instance, dissertation and george bush period needed to collect two samples of passing by behaviors was anselm why god became man thesis same as that for three samples of walking around behavior and of five samples for sitting behavior. In all, 51 samples were collected for passing by behavior: 26 samples 12 males and 14 females without music and 25 13 males and 12 females with music; 84 samples were essay bid for walking around behavior, of which 43 samples 20 males and 23 females were without music and character analysis samples 20 males and 21 females with music; and samples were collected for sitting behavior, 63 without music and debate speech outline dai dissertation abstract international music.

Imperative northwest semitic dissertation preliminary study, it was found that proportions of males argumenative essay topics females engaging in given behaviors at the case site are generally equal Meng et al. In order graduate dissertation database use the T -test to compare the samples, therefore, 24 samples 12 males and 12 females without music and 24 samples 12 males and 12 females with music were randomly selected for passing by behavior, 40 samples 20 males and 20 females with music and 40 samples 20 males and 20 females without music for dai dissertation abstract international around behavior, and 60 samples without music and dai dissertation abstract international with music for sitting behavior.

In the present study, the power analysis was used to test sample sizes Carpentier and Potter, The results showed that the power of samples for passing by behavior is 0. This indicates that all samples were sufficient. To study the effect of music on the path and speed of passing by behaviors in urban open spaces, 48 samples, including 24 without music and 24 with, were selected for observation from the videos shot by the UAV. The locations of the entrances and exits are shown in Figure 3.

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